- Automated valet parking is the world’s first fully automated driverless (SAE Level 4)¹ parking function to be approved by the authorities
- System to be in daily use in the Mercedes-Benz Museum parking garage in Stuttgart
- Automated parking system collects and returns the vehicle completely independently
- Bosch supplies the infrastructure; Daimler the vehicle technology
- Special permit issued by Stuttgart regional administrative authority in close cooperation with Baden-Württemberg state transportation ministry following assessment by German technical inspection service TÜV Rheinland
Bosch and Daimler have reached a milestone on the way to automated driving: the two companies have now obtained approval from the relevant authorities in Baden-Württemberg for their automated parking system in the Mercedes-Benz Museum parking garage in Stuttgart. The automated valet parking service is accessed via a smartphone app and requires no safety driver. This makes it the world’s first fully automated driverless SAE Level 4 parking function to be officially approved for everyday use.
“This decision by the authorities shows that innovations like automated valet parking are possible in Germany first,” said Dr. Markus Heyn, member of the board of management of Robert Bosch GmbH. “Driverless driving and parking are important building blocks for tomorrow’s mobility. The automated parking system shows just how far we have already progressed along this development path.”
“This approval from the Baden-Württemberg authorities sets a precedent for obtaining approval in the future for the parking service in parking garages around the world,” added Dr. Michael Hafner, the head of drive technologies and automated driving at Daimler AG. “As a pioneer in automated driving, our project paves the way for automated valet parking to go into mass production in the future.”
From the very beginning, Bosch and Daimler’s top priority for the driverless parking service was safety. Since there is as yet no official approval process for automated driving functions that do not require a driver, the local authorities, the Stuttgart regional administrative authority and the state of Baden-Württemberg’s transportation ministry, oversaw the project along with experts from the German technical inspection service TÜV Rheinland from the outset. Their aim was to assess the operating safety of the automotive and parking-garage technology.
The result is a comprehensive safety concept with appropriate testing and approval criteria that can be applied beyond this pilot project. In the concept, the developers defined how the driverless vehicle detects pedestrians and other cars in its path and reliably comes to a halt when it encounters an obstacle. They also set up secure communications between all system components and took steps to ensure the reliable activation of the parking manoeuvre.
Drive into the drop off point in the parking garage, get out and send the car to a parking space just by tapping on a smartphone screen, automated valet parking has no need for a driver. The car then drives itself to an assigned space and parks, returning later to the drop-off point in exactly the same way. This process relies on the interplay between the intelligent parking garage infrastructure supplied by Bosch and Mercedes-Benz automotive technology. Bosch sensors in the parking garage monitor the driving corridor and its surroundings and provide the information needed to guide the vehicle. The technology in the car converts the commands from the infrastructure into driving manoeuvres. This way, cars can even drive themselves up and down ramps to move between stories in the parking garage. If the infrastructure sensors detect an obstacle, the vehicle stops immediately.
Bosch and Daimler started developing fully automated driverless parking in 2015 and by 2018, museum visitors could use the parking service live, accompanied by trained safety personnel, and share the experience. One aspect of the pilot project involved testing lighting concepts on the vehicles. Turquoise lighting indicates that a vehicle is in automated driving mode and informs passers-by and other road users that the vehicle is driving itself. The insights from these tests are reflected in the recently issued SAE standard 3134. Obtaining final approval from the authorities is a further major milestone for Bosch and Daimler and in the near future interested parties will be able to experience the valet parking service live in daily operation in the Mercedes-Benz Museum parking garage without additional supervision from a safety driver.